Đàn bầu, a musical instrument that touches the heart
"The music of the Dan Bau should
be solely for the pleasure of its player.
Don't listen to it if you are a young woman."
This warning, probably coming from vigilant parents wishing to
protect their daughters from the emotional appeal of love songs
played on this instrument; this gives an idea of the power and charm
of its music.
If one sound had to be chosen to evoke Vietnam, for many it would
be the sound of the Dan Bau as it is one of only two traditional
musical instruments of purely vietnamese origin. The word "bau"
means gourd and refers to the dried gourd fastened to the handle,
surrounding the string at the point where it connects to the handle.
In the past this gourd may have served as a resonator, but today
it survives as a decorative feature. Nowadays the Dan Bau is constructed
using hardwood for a frame and softwood for the surface.
According to the "Dai Nam thuc luc tien bien" the first
dan bau was made in 1770. At its first appearance it was a very
simple instrument comprised of a bamboo section, a flexible rod,
a calabash or half a coconut. After a process of evolution and improvement,
the present form of the Dan Bau is a bit more sophisticated, yet
still quite simple.
Bau in general consists of 4 components including soundboard (resonator),
spout, gourd, string and tuning peg.
The spout is a piece of bamboo or a buffalo horn that is square-framed
at the root, while flat and gradually bent at the top. The spout
plays an important role in producing sounds of different pitches
beyond fundamental overtones of the instrument.
The string runs along the body of instrument. The past silk-made
string is now replaced with iron one.
The gourd is made up from a half of a slender-necked gourd. The
gourd covers the spout at the very point where the string is hung.
The gourd contributes to increase the loudness of sound for the
instrument. Nowadays, gourd is usually made from wood and therefore
only served as an adornment.
The tuning peg is made from bamboo (if bamboo Bau), or from wood
(if wooden Bau). The tuning peg is located at the inside frame towards
the bottom of the soundboard. The string goes through a small hole
at the end of the instrument's surface and then gets through the
tuning peg. In front of such a hole is a bridge to support the string.
The pluck is a pointed stick of bamboo or rattan.
Dan Bau is usually tuned to the note C. It uses harmonies (or overtones).
When playing the musician plucks the string while touching it lightly
with the side of his hand at a point producing a harmony. But because
the flexible rod causes the tension of the string to vary, the pitch
may be made to rise or fall, the note may be lengthened or shortened,
and trills may be played. The technique involving the fingers of
the left hand includes vibrating, pressing, alternate pressing and
releasing. The Dan Bau may be played on a scale consisting of third-tones
or even quarter-tones.
The instrument is played solo or to accompany a poetry recital.
During recent years, it has taken a role in orchestral accompaniment
to cheo and cai luong opera.
The notes played by the Dan Bau are smooth, sweet, and captivating.
In recent years success has been achieved in amplifying the sound,
causing an increase in volume and distance the that the sound carries,
while still preserving the quality of the sound.
With soft sounds, Bau is suitably used in serene context. In the
past, Bau is the instrument of itinerant singers of Xam genre. Later,
Bau also participates in orchestra of Cheo genre, Tai tu style's
orchestra, in orchestra serving for declamation, in smaller ensemble
or solo performance. There have been many musical pieces exclusively
composed for Bau solo, such as Vu Khuc Tay Nguyen (Dance of the
Central Highland) by Duc Nhuan, Dong kenh trong (The clear channel)
by Hoang Dam, Vi Mien Nam (for the South) by Huy Thuc, and so on.
Among many kinds of monochord of countries all over the world, there
are Tuntina of India, Cung of East Africa, Tushuenkin of China.
However, none of them can produce such a popular and highly artistic
system of overtones as that of Bau of Vietnam. The Dan Bau has been
performed on major stages in foreign countries.
Ðọc 1 trích đoạn trong bài "Giới
thiệu vài nét về đàn bầu" của Nhạc Sĩ Phạm Thúy Hoan đã phát
sóng trên Đài Truyền Hình TPHCM vào tháng 12-2003
(ca. 140 kB)
extracted from "Da co hoai lang"
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